Ray Peat Rodeo
A picture of Marcus Whybrow, creator of Ray Peat Rodeo From Marcus This is an audio interview to do with Ray Peat from 2020.
It's part of my effort to archive and augment Ray's complete works within this website, Ray Peat Rodeo. You can donate to the project on GitHub sponsors, cheers🥰.

Report Card

  • Content added
  • Content unverified
  • Speakers unidentified
  • Mentions incomplete
  • Issues incomplete
  • Notes incomplete
  • Timestamps incomplete

00:00 Well, welcome to the Get Fit with Jodell show. I am Jodell, as usual, and Dr. Pete has honored us with his presence on the podcast yet again. And I, as I am sure you are thrilled, just like I am, every time we get a chance to talk with him. So, it’s a treat, Dr. Pete. So thank you. And what’s new in your world currently? Well, I’ve been writing newsletter on vaccinations, sort of the history of vaccination, and explaining some of the physiological points that are being misrepresented. I am so excited to read that because I’m pretty passionate about wanting to know all of the logistics about vaccinations as well. I’ve been looking into it for many years, so I’ll be really anxious to read that. And, you know, we love hearing from you and supporting you. 00:59 And so for those of you out there listening who haven’t signed up for his newsletter that he’s talking about, which, by the way, will blow your hair back when you read it. And each time it comes out, I just get excited. So I highly encourage you guys to sign up for that newsletter as it is a way to show your support and appreciation for Dr. Pete and how generous he is with his knowledge in coming on the podcast. So to do that, you can send an email to raypeatsnewsletter, all one word, at gmail.com. And to sign up for that newsletter, it’s just real easy, and it gives your support to him as well. And if you’re new to listening to the podcast, you can read an amazing plethora of research-based articles that Dr. Pete has written at raypeat.com, that’s R-A-Y-P-E-A-T dot com. So without further ado, we had such a good podcast last time where people got to write in and ask questions, and it was really well received, so we decided to do that again. So we’ve got quite a slew of questions that people have written in. 02:01 So I thank you for posting your questions. We’ll get to as many as the hour allows. And I might even have a few of my own to toss in there, Dr. Pete, so this will be fun. The first question comes from Reba, and she asks, Dr. Pete, how can someone get rid of endotoxins in the body since we know how detrimental they are? A fiber diet such as a raw carrot, if you shred a carrot, it’s fairly fine. And maybe olive oil and a little vinegar and salt. It’s pleasant enough food that you can eat it every day, and it happens that the carrot contains a germicycle with harmless substances. Root vegetables growing underground have to resist mold and bacteria attacks, and that 03:08 material has the same disinfectant effect in the intestine. Olive oil and vinegar also have a germicidal effect. Salad is a good, protective daily stimulating food. The bulk stimulates the intestine, so generally the transit time is reduced if you eat a raw carrot every day. The average American, according to one survey, had, I think it was a three-day transit time. The average person in Africa had less than a one-day transit time, but if you can get your intestinal activity increased, that itself has benefits far beyond reducing the endotoxin 04:10 because your liver is constantly processing toxins and hormones, and especially estrogen is instantly inactivated when it reaches the liver. And some of it goes into the bile, some of it is eliminated through the kidneys, but the estrogen in the bile, if you don’t have enough fiber in your intestine, the estrogen can be reabsorbed and returned to the liver, and when the liver is exposed to too much estrogen, it slows down and loses its ability to detoxify estrogen. So having a good flow of fiber through your intestine not only suppresses the endotoxin, but it binds the bile and the estrogen content of the bile, preventing it from reabsorption. 05:13 So any kind of fiber has that anti-estrogen effect, but raw carrot is a very safe one. So when you said salad, you’re talking the raw carrot salad, not necessarily a dark luscious green salad, right? No, I did an experiment putting lettuce in a closed plastic bag to imitate the intestine, have some suboxygen, and kept it at about 80 or 90 degrees in the intestine that’s close to almost 100 degrees Fahrenheit, but even keeping it around 90 degrees after two or three days, the lettuce was just horribly rotten, it supported a terrible bacterial growth and was stinky and foul smelling, and since we don’t have enzymes to break down cellulose, that same kind of process happens when you eat a raw leafy material such as 06:14 lettuce. Yeah, so stick to just the raw carrot salad if you really want to remove those endotoxins, right? Yeah, but if you can get fairly safe fibers in other ways, for example, a well-cooked oat bran is a pretty functional alternative, although research in Australia found the chronic use of oat bran itself has some estrogenic and carcinogenic effects on the intestine. What about, I know you’re a big fan of coconut products, but what about coconut flour, because that’s pretty high in fiber, but they make, I guess they dehydrate the coconut and process it down into a flour, what do you think about that? In studies in pigs, it didn’t work so well. Okay. It supports either bacterial or fungal growth. 07:16 Okay, that’s interesting, since most other coconut products we can trust in, because they actually help mitigate some of the fungus and yeast in the colon, right? Yeah, the coconut oil, if it’s oil refined and clean, is a good fungus blend. Okay, great. Well, she also had another question. She said, what does Dr. Pete think about bone broth, specifically chicken broth? Oh, that’s one of my favorites, back, neck, wings, and feet are all high in collagen. And if you cook them thoroughly and then let it stand and steam off the fat, then that’s high in collagen food. Okay, I’ve done the wings and the neck. I’ve never done the feet, so now I’m going to do the feet. You have to be careful getting them from a farmer that you know, because a big processor 08:21 is likely to have processed the chickens with antiseptics. And sometimes the feet soak up a lot of the antiseptic. That would be true, yes. That seems about right, considering our society nowadays and what they do to our meat system. Okay, so Ben asks, what about weight training for bone density? He mentioned that you said that weight training, you know, various moves are efficient, but do we need to do regular weight training for bone density or is there something else we can do? The diet really is the main thing, keeping your stress levels low and your activity comfortable. It doesn’t have to be anything special because stress involves several things that interfere with bone repair and renewal. Even the deficiency of a low salt diet can create stress that harms the bone. 09:33 And so old people are being told to keep their salt down for blood pressure control. That’s adding to their stress, increasing adrenaline, bringing up the parasite hormone that tears down the bone. Keeping a very, very high ratio of calcium to phosphate in your diet is helpful because that helps to suppress the parasite hormone. And the parasite hormone blocks the use of oxygen in all of your tissues and that leads to the production of lactic acid in the bone, which dissolves the bone and contributes in the long run to osteoporosis. But that same bone destroying effect lowers the energy production in all of ourselves. 10:37 And so high calcium intake in cases are metabolic rate and efficient oxidative metabolism all through the body, not just the bone. Would you also say that these individuals or all of us would want to be outside in the sun? Will that help with bone density as well? The older person is the less cholesterol the skin contains, and it’s the ultraviolet light interacting with the cholesterol that makes vitamin D. So a person, especially a dark skinned person with anyone over the age of 50 needs a lot or exposure to sunlight to get their vitamin D level up adequately. Okay, and I liked how last time you mentioned chopping wood is actually a really great form of exercise. So that would be a way to increase bone density, I would think, too. 11:39 I love that. Okay, so Sergey asked, I’d very much like to know how Dr. Pete would recommend to deal with insulin resistance and early type 2 diabetes. Should one be afraid of elevated blood glucose after saying goodbye to low carb or keto? No, the chronic stress elevates the free fatty acids in the blood. Women in particular have the problem of chronically high free fatty acids because estrogen causes a great activation of the growth hormone, which is a major producer of free fatty acids. 12:45 And it’s free fatty acids in general, and it’s actually untacturated free fatty acids that interfere with the use of glucose. So keeping your fat intake low is somewhat helpful, but anything that lowers stress, lowers estrogen is going to increase your insulin sensitivity, lowers your ability to use glucose. Everything that lowers stress and lowers estrogen and improves your ability to use oxygen, productively converting sugar to carbon dioxide when you’re stressed or high estrogen or have too much free fatty acid in the blood. 13:48 Any sugar that’s present tends to produce lactic acid instead of carbon dioxide. And lactic acid itself has many toxic degenerative effects. So I’ve heard a lot of people who went keto for a vast amount of time are now saying that they’re having insulin resistance, and even some have been diagnosed as type 2 diabetic. So it sounds like the stress of going into ketosis is part of the problem that’s creating almost this diabetic effect on these individuals. The ketogenic diet is always stress-promoting. That means that diabetes is a genetic to some extent. The diet that produces ketosis isn’t strictly generating ketones. 14:50 The hydroxymguterate is included as a ketone, but it’s actually an alcohol, not a ketone, and studies have looked at the difference between actual ketosis and the presence of high proportion of hydroxymguterate shows that the hydroxymguterate stimulates cancer growth and other stress-related things. So if you had an artificial source of ketones, there were real ketones. That would probably be very beneficial, but when you generate them yourself, you’re under stress, and you’re creating cancer-promoting degenerative type of situation. 15:58 Picking up a trend in your talking is the stress is the main cause. In all the podcasts we’ve done, you’ve got to reduce the stress, you’ve got to calm down the stress in the body. One of my personal questions I’d like to ask you is, what is your favorite way to de-stress in your life? How do you like to de-stress? Playing a musical instrument or painting or just doing anything interesting. If there’s lead to top, that’s a good activity. Yeah, but I can see how when we dial that stress reduction in, a lot of these things we’re talking about today, that’s when we’re going to see them get reduced as well, right? Yeah, the culture is designed pretty much to keep people under maximum stress. 17:06 Sort of like idle hens are likely to get in trouble, and so the economy is designed to keep everyone under maximum stress so that they don’t get in trouble, but actually it doesn’t work that way. Yeah, they’re not getting in trouble with society, they’re getting in trouble in their health, and so what’s wrong with just taking a blanket outside on the grass and laying on it and watching the clouds go by? I don’t think there’s anything wrong with that, but we just don’t take the time to do that. Yeah, when the weather’s good. Okay, and the movie ones got a little sidetracked there because I love hearing your thoughts on stress, a YouTube listener writes that it was an anonymous person said, please address how this all applies, this being the stress mitigation, and actually they were talking within regards to adrenal insufficiency, someone who does not produce enough cortisol. He says, all I hear on different podcasts is that cortisol is evil and must be reduced, 18:11 but a certain amount of cortisol is necessary for our bodies, isn’t it? And without any cortisol we would die, so can you address those who have low cortisol and how to balance that in the right ratio? Yeah, out of thousands of people that I’ve seen their blood tests, I’ve only seen one or two that actually were deficient in cortisol. And they’re known as having an adrenal deficiency of some sort, but when you look at their blood tests, they’re doing fine on cortisol, but the adrenals use cholesterol to turn into trigmenolone and then into GHA and progesterone, so cortisol and aldosterone are increased by almost any stress, 19:14 and only a very small fraction of your trigmenolone or progesterone makes it into cortisol, so there has to be a great deficiency of cholesterol, trigmenolone and progesterone, before you experience an actual deficiency of cholesterol. And by the time you reach a real deficiency of cortisol, you’re experiencing a whole range of symptoms and problems from low trigmenolone and low progesterone. You can tolerate lots of stress in this cortisol if it’s backed up with a plenty of trigmenolone, progesterone and GHA, 20:22 so a person doesn’t have to worry about their stress if they have lots of these anti-stress performance. Would that be something that they would want to look into supplementing, considering taking a trigmenolone supplement if they find that they have very low cortisol? In experiments on rats 60 years ago, they looked at the hormone level of all the rats they were experimenting with, and some of them were under stress from the handling and such, and they had higher than average cortisol, and then they gave them all, the equivalent for a person would be a cup full of powdered trigmenolone that killed their stomachs. 21:25 I think it was 10 grams that goes per rap, just a gigantic dose so they couldn’t eat anything for a few hours, but there were no changes in their steroid hormones except the ones who were under stress to start with. It brought their cortisol down to normal so you can’t push upstream in the adrenals. The more trigmenolone or progesterone you take, the more normal you become. It’s the end point hormones that are produced normally only in extreme situations like elastrone, estrogen, and cortisol. These are dealing with specific problems. If you supplement those beyond what the body would be making, then you have potential problems with all of them. 22:28 Okay, so that might be some good advice for that listener who maybe needs to increase their cortisol. That might be thinking about supplementing prognome alone might be an easy fix right at first. There was a well-known book 20 or 30 years ago on the natural use of hydrocortisone or cortisol. He is an example of the days that he based it on. We’re very good examples showing that a tiny supplement like Fyretin micrograms of cortisol could improve a woman’s menstrual cycle, for example. But I happened to know some of his patients who he was giving what he called a physiological dose of natural cortisol. And after two or three months they all started getting puffy faces, a typical Christian’s disease. 23:41 That was a 20 milligram per day dose in divided doses which is what the body normally makes. But if you supplement that, it can be risky. Okay, well said. Next question is from Leanne and she asks, what would be a good strategy to help with my immune system? I recently found out I have cytomegalovirus expressed and also ebstein bar virus. And I would like to increase my body’s immune function. What do you say to that, Dr. Pete? Probably the majority of people have those viruses and so it’s a matter of keeping them from expressing themselves. And keeping your ability to handle stress, optimize is the important thing. 24:46 And when you look at studies of general infections, not just those but the more serious infections, polio or all of the things that they vaccinate for, measles and so on. If you supplement vitamin A and vitamin D along those two vitamins are just better effective as a huge vaccination campaign. And the viruses that are risen in the majority of people aren’t doing any harm if their immune system is okay. But for example, if you’re overweight, your blood level might seem to show a normal amount of vitamin A and vitamin D. 25:48 But your tissues can be very deficient and deficient will benefit from bringing their vitamin D and vitamin A among other nutrients up to a functional level. So with vitamin D, a serum level of 50 or 60 nanograms per milliliter corresponds to lower rate of diabetes. Various infections, flu infections, practically disappear from the person’s heat to their blood level, at least 50 nanograms per milliliter. I was just, actually I did a podcast with Jordy Dinkoff earlier today and we were talking about vitamin D and I was mentioning how I was recently in Hawaii. And I noticed that after talking to a couple of my friends that live there, they don’t have a cold and flu season. 26:51 And I wonder if that is part of the reason why they get vitamin D every day from ample sun in Hawaii. And I wonder if just keeping their levels up is keeping the whole state from having a cold and flu season. Yeah, I’ve known several people who used to have maybe five episodes every fall and winter of colds or flu when they started taking vitamin D. Not another episode from multiple cases every year to none in several years. Makes sense. We need sun for a reason and so even if we can’t get it, we can supplement the sun and so that sounds like it’s pretty important. As far as other immune boosters, what do you think about colostrum? That probably is helpful in an emergency situation but I don’t think you need it. 27:52 Magnesium is another nutrient that many people are deficient in. If your diet has too much phosphate, you just can’t get enough calcium and magnesium to balance it. And if your thyroid is slow, your cells don’t retain magnesium and the magnesium deficiency opens up your immune system to parts of these intangamous viruses. Herpes, Epstein bar and so on. And what about your thoughts on like monolourin which is like from lower gas, like from coconut oil. I know people use that as kind of an immune system booster. The guy who was not deal rising that about 10 or 15 years ago asked me to join in the campaign to promote it. But I asked him if there had been any safety studies of it and he got off and said I was anti-scientific. 28:56 I’ve looked for safety studies and I’m not convinced of those things in any of the lipid things that are germicidal. They can also be disturbing to our digestive system. Okay, good to know because you hear people talk about that and you’ll read reviews on certain things and you just don’t know until you talk to somebody who knows like you. When I eat a fat like butter or coconut oil, it is in the triglyceride form and our digestive system is very well equipped to handle quite a bit of that natural triglyceride fat. And it breaks the particles up in the tiny chylomicron particles and those will pass into the lymphatic system. 30:02 The chylomicrons are formed only when you have the right amount of the right type of triglycerides and if you put other emulsifying things or very abnormal lipids, it can disrupt our ability to make chylomicrons. And since the chylomicrons sort of made your pathway for absorbing vitamins A, K, Z and E, if you just serve the chylomicrons for too long, then you can get deficient in the fatty vitamins. Next question comes from another anonymous person and they said with kidney issues such as frequent urination and seeming to dump all my minerals daily with frequent bouts of urination, what do you suggest to calm down the kidneys and also help them to function more optimally? 31:11 The two hormones most protective for the kidneys are progesterone and thyroid and the vitamins that I’ve just been mentioning, especially vitamin D, is extremely protective for the kidneys. And making sure that you get the essential minerals, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in a generous amount every day is protective for the kidneys. Drinking too much water rather than milk or juices as the water came up, as she said, wash the minerals out of you just by not providing it fills up your stomach and satisfies your thirst, but it doesn’t provide any nutrients. 32:12 So it’s better only to drink water when you’re thirsty. Milk, juice and coffee are accompanied by some essential nutrients in each one. And are you a fan of coconut water? If you open up a fresh green coconut, it’s very nice, but I don’t press any of it commercially sold because I’ve seen some of it containing preservatives. But I imagine if you’re sure it doesn’t have a preservative, it’s just pasteurized and bottled. That is probably good. Okay, very good. Okay, Allison asks, can white willow bark be taken instead of aspen? Um, it works for some people, but it does have other ingredients. 33:16 So the tanin type substance in the herb can be irritating to the intestines. So it’s pretty much a personal matter whether it works for you. Okay, and just briefly in case people are new to your thoughts on aspirin, can you tell people just a few thoughts about how you feel that aspirin is beneficial? I know it’s kind of a new school of thought in today’s world, even for me as a nutritionist when I had first heard you say that. Never was I taught that in nutrition, the training that I went through. And so once you told me the benefits, it made total sense, but I’d like for the listeners to hear you say that. Um, it has many functions, anti-inflammatory functions, but the thing that has been studied most is blocking the production of prostaglandins, and those are formed from any inflammation 34:21 and trigger the formation of these short-acting hormones. But all of them have some very harmful side effects besides what they primarily do. Most of them are simply amplifiers of the inflammation and they’re produced in the brain, in the every organ, heart, and so on. In response to a minor trigger of inflammation. So they’re produced in proportion to the amount of polyunsaturated fat incorporated into all of these tissues. And as we age, increasing sharply in the teens as our growth slows down, so that we’re metabolic rate slows, and we aren’t deluding them or oxidizing them as fast as the baby does. 35:23 From about the age of 20, we very efficiently keep adding polyunsaturated fatty acids into our tissue structures, so that from the age of 20 to 40, we’re probably dumbling the amount of poofa in our tissues and poofa is what converts to prostaglandins in the event of inflammation. So if Jesus or a newborn baby heals an injury without scars, and all through childhood, injuries heal very, very quickly and with relatively little inflammation. But as the poofa in our tissue accumulates, it will heal more slowly, cause more inflammation, and leave scars that are interfering with function. 36:28 Whenever you have a systemic inflammation producing lactic acid and prostaglandins, both of these are increasing the deposition of collagen in the tissues. So with aging, the body becomes approaching something like a big scar with very high collagen content. The difference between skin, gloves, and leather boots is a matter of the age of the animal. An old animal has very high leathery skin because of the high collagen content. And all of these inflammation-related things, prostaglandins or lactic acid, contribute to that age process of sickening in the tissues. 37:32 And as from by blocking prostaglandins and several other inflammatory mechanisms, is important protection from inflammation and aging. Yeah, and I think my favorite feature too is that it helps to lower excess cortisol, is that correct? Yeah, it lowers the pituitary ACTH production and ACTH also brings up the adrenal elastron, which contributes to the collagen production of aging and deterioration in general. So not just protecting against cortisol, but a whole range of degenerative processes. Wonderful. Okay, so now we know the benefits of aspirin. Nick asks, I’ve been taking cod liver oil pills for vitamin A and vitamin D. 38:36 He says in a previous interview to avoid fish oils, which I’ve never heard before, so does that include cod liver oil? Should I stop? Well, cod liver oil at least is giving you cod liver oil and A, which is beneficial if you don’t have another source, but I think it’s good to use a fish oil-derived vitamin A and D if most of the other fish oils have been removed. Because studies of the phase of intestine fish oil are very interesting. If you look at them just in a bottle, I did experiments with a bottle of unsaturated oils. I put a rubber tube in the bottle and put the other end of the rubber tube in water. 39:40 And every day, the water is timed up the rubber tube because of the oxygen consumption of the saturated fat. Fish oils are extremely hard to react with oxygen, and in these studies they found that before they reached the bloodstream, the majority of them had been oxidized. And they’re very quick to be stored if they make it into the bloodstream. So with aging, the brain accumulates these oxidizable fatty acids, but the oxidation continues in the brain. And the neural pristine is what they call the breakdown product when they happen in the brain. Isopristine, in other tissues, is the randomly produced equivalent of the prostaglandins. 40:43 The neural pristins are made from the type of fatty acid that predominates in fish oil. But before they reach storage, a very large part of these fish oils are already oxidized and they are immunosuppressive. The toxic effect on the immune system can temporarily reduce inflammation by damaging the cells that would react to harm. So for about six months, they are anti-inflammatory by blocking some of the immediate inflammatory reactions of the immune system. But after that, the immune deficiency starts showing up and the animals experimented on with fish oils then became more susceptible to all kinds of infections. 41:48 Well, and I guess even all throughout my years of doing nutrition consults, I was never comfortable promoting fish oils. Just for the mere fact of if you think logically about how much processing it has to go through to get the oil out of a fish into a capsule, it just doesn’t seem logical that that oil would then retain all of the nutrient value to go in someone’s body and be beneficial. So I just really startled with promoting that. I just told people, you know, eat fish and get your fish naturally. Historically, it was made a very good farming because it oxidizes so thoroughly. And if you imagine that happening in your body, you don’t want to harvest blood vessels. So if you have any leftover fish oil at home, just start using it as a varnish for your furniture at home. Don’t ingest it. Yes, I agree. Okay, so Victoria asks, can women who are vegans or vegetarians successfully follow Dr. Pete’s nutritional guidelines and maintain a healthy menstrual cycle? 42:58 It happens that the only non-animal proteins that are really adequate for human needs are potatoes and mushrooms. And you can thrive as far as protein goes with either potatoes or mushrooms. And mushrooms happen to generally have more of the trace minerals than potatoes. So you can get your iron from the mushrooms and all of the other nutrients except B12 and vitamin A from potatoes. Some people that have mushrooms can provide B12. I’m not sure if that but adequate bacteria and intestines will make vitamin B12. And so vitamin A is the main problem. 44:01 And keratin, if your thyroid function is good and you have vitamin B12, those are needed for converting keratin. And the actual vitamin A is just needed for making progesterone, which is essential for maintaining good periods. And so the problem becomes that so many vegetables block your thyroid function. As long as you can keep your thyroid functioning and have vitamin B12, then you can convert keratin adequately to vitamin A to make your hormones. And as far as like for vegans or vegetarians, would something like nutritional yeast, would that bring some B vitamins since it is kind of high in B12? Oh yeah, but potatoes and mushrooms are very rich in all of the vitamins, all of the nutrients except for iron and vitamin A. 45:08 And sometimes B12 might be a limiting factor. And as far as like other foods, you know, you hear people talk about yams and things like that that promote estrogen. But do you think that there’s actually foods that can naturally promote poor, I mean progesterone. Do you think that there’s foods that can naturally promote more progesterone in the body? No, only things that provide energies of sodium, calcium and sugar are necessary for making the thyroid that you need to make the progesterone. But there are no foods that directly go to the progesterone system. Okay, good to know. That’s kind of my thoughts too. I wasn’t really convinced of the whole yam thing being a promoter of progesterone. 46:09 I didn’t see how one food could be a promoter. I’ve noticed that the yam story of people were trying to sell yams as progesterone promoter. But the food here all in the yams is actually estrogenic and very toxic. A wrestle marker who developed the production of progesterone from the yams at one point decided to try the raw yam powder to see what it would do. Next morning he said that he looked like he had been read over by a truck. It was all black and blue and had broken so many blood vessels that he was bleeding internally. It’s very dangerous stuff in the crude form. Okay, good to know. Elyssa asks, what does Dr. Pete think of stevia? 47:13 Oh, very sweet, but I’m not that sure. It’s safe to use to kind of regulate your blood pressure in lower blood pressure. I don’t think there’s any real problem with hypertension if you’re eating well and keeping your thyroid function alright. Hypothyroidism is almost always behind hypertension. Other nutritional deficiencies can sometimes do it. A magnesium deficiency or a vitamin D deficiency sometimes, but usually it’s just a low thyroid problem. Yeah, and I remember reading there’s a few studies linked to infertility with stevia and it got my wheels turning thinking, well, maybe it’s because these people are swapping out sugar for stevia. 48:14 And good forms of sugar could be the reason why it would help just promote a system that’s making more progesterone for fertility or other sex hormones. And so perhaps that would be the reason why they’re infertile is they kind of gave up on the good natural sugars. Okay, now we’re towards the end, so I had one question I threw in here at the end and it’s kind of a personal one again. I like to learn about you, so I have a question for you. I would love to know, do you have a favorite quick and easy recipe that you love and that you would like to share with us? Oh, not one in particular, but I have at different times made a lot of custard. When I was confident that there were safe sources of powdered milk, I had a recipe for making pancakes with nothing but egg and powdered milk. 49:24 I was trying butter and they’re very good, but you have to be sure that your powdered milk doesn’t have an anti-cacing agent, which can be toxic. I’m experimenting with recipes using masa, an extremized corn, and that’s a very safe and adjustable way to use a cereal. The processing in lime eliminates most of the toxins and breaks down the protein and starch so that they’re very adjustable, not toxic. So would that then be kind of like a grits almost? Yep, yep, they might be a lot of grits, tamales, turkeys. And so do you have kind of a recipe that you’re working on now with the masa? Yeah, I’m just trying out different ways of handling it, but the traditional, pretty much, the Central Americans developed, I think, all of the best recipes in case it is, for example. 50:42 And how do you do your custard? I know you mentioned custard a minute ago. Yeah, just egg, milk, sugar, and vanilla. Okay, that sounds easy enough. I might have to try that. Okay, well, that’s the questions that we had on tap for today. So I thank you once again for your time and your careful consideration on all these and sharing your vast knowledge. So we appreciate you. And again, you guys that are listening, check out the newsletter. The way Pete’s newsletter at gmail.com is how you want to order that, and you can get it in your inbox, or you can get it in your mailbox. So you can go the nice way of actually reading a hard copy. Dr. Pete, thank you once again. I appreciate you so much, and we’ll do this again soon. Okay, thank you. All right, have a wonderful afternoon. Bye bye.

More Interviews